Verbal and nonverbal intelligence scores within the context of poverty Academic Article uri icon


  • This study explored the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence scores in students from low-income households. Researchers investigated how the verbal and nonverbal scores of these students differed both by ability level and within each grade. The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scale was administered to 1935 kindergarten through fifth-grade students enrolled in free and reduced-price lunch programs. Large gaps were found between students verbal and nonverbal intelligence scores; such gaps were not specific to any particular grade or ability level but rather were seen in all of the examined grades. Gaps were even larger for students with higher nonverbal IQ scores. Results suggest that assessments based solely on nonverbal scores should be interpreted with caution.

published proceedings

  • Gifted Education International

altmetric score

  • 2.2

author list (cited authors)

  • Kaya, F., Stough, L. M., & Juntune, J.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Kaya, Fatih||Stough, Laura M||Juntune, Joyce

publication date

  • September 2017