Parenting beliefs and practices in toddlerhood as precursors to self-regulatory, psychosocial, and academic outcomes in early and middle childhood in ethnically diverse low-income families Academic Article uri icon


  • 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Ethnoracially diverse families living in poverty are vulnerable to stress, discrimination, and adversities that can be toxic to parenting and to a wide range of psychosocial and academic outcomes in youth. Thus, there is high need to identify malleable protective and promotive factors that may lead to improved developmental trajectories and outcomes for at-risk youth and families. In this study of 2,233 low-income families with ethnoracially diverse children (49.5% girls; 42.5% European Americans, 38.4% African Americans, and 19.1% U.S. Latino/as), we tested a model positing that child-rearing beliefs at 24months and parenting practices at 36months are precursors to the development of childrens self-regulation at pre-kindergarten, with self-regulation as a mediating mechanism between parenting in toddlerhood and psychosocial and academic functioning at fifth grade. Results confirm that child-rearing beliefs are precursors to parenting practices, and both parenting practices and self-regulation are mediating mechanisms by which child-rearing beliefs are linked to youths psychosocial and academic outcomes. The results have implications for early parent education and parenting interventions, including public health approaches that have the potential for positive impacts on vulnerable children, youth, and families.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 2.1

author list (cited authors)

  • Liew, J., Carlo, G., Streit, C., & Ispa, J. M.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Liew, Jeffrey||Carlo, Gustavo||Streit, Cara||Ispa, Jean M

publication date

  • January 2018