Morphology of immature blow fly Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a potential species of forensic importance
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Blow flies of the genus Hypopygiopsis are forensically-important, as their larvae are commonly associated with human corpses. Within a forensic entomology context, species identification of specimens collected from human corpses is the initial mandatory step in the investigation. Without identification, complete interpretation of entomological evidence is challenged. In this study, the ultrastructures of eggs, all instars, and puparia of Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) are presented based on assessment with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Distinctive features used for species identification of all stages are highlighted. Eggs have a slightly widening median area extending almost the entire length. Larvae are vermiform-shaped, creamy white, and have a smooth integument. The pseudocephalon of larvae bears sensory structures (i.e., antennal dome, maxillary palpus and ventral organ). In the first instar, two tufts of cirri are observed along the dorsal margin of the mouth opening. In the second and third instars, six minute tubercles are present along the peripheral rims of the last abdominal segment. The anterior spiracle of the second, third instar, and puparia is fan-shape of single row, comprising 9-11 papillae. The cuticular spines between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments of the third instar possess many rows of posteriorly-projecting acuminate spines in clusters. In puparia, at the latero-dorsal edge of the 1st abdominal segment, a cluster of ∼92 bubble membranes is present in young puparia (20-24 h). The peristigmatic tufts adjacent to the posterior spiracle of the second instar, third instar, and puparia are heavily branches of long, fine hairs. Our results demonstrate the morphology of eggs, larvae, and puparia of H. infumata are similar to other species in Hypopygiopsis. This study highlighted the main features of cephaloskeleton of H. infumata larvae as observed under LM. Particular attention is given to oral sclerite and rough surface of dorsal cornua which can distinguish between H. infumata and H. tumrasvini.
author list (cited authors)
Sanit, S., Limsopatham, K., Klong-Klaew, T., Samerjai, C., Yasanga, T., Sukontason, K., Tomberlin, J. K., & Sukontason, K. L.