Accelerated Oxidation of Organic Contaminants by Ferrate(VI): The Overlooked Role of Reducing Additives.
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This paper presents an accelerated ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, FeVI) oxidation of contaminants in 30 s by adding one-electron and two-electron transfer reductants (R(1) and R(2)). An addition of R(2) (e.g., NH2OH, AsIII, SeIV, PIII, and NO2-, and S2O32-) results in FeIV initially, while FeV is generated with the addition of R(1) (e.g., SO32-). R(2) additives, except S2O32-, show the enhanced oxidation of 20-40% of target contaminant, trimethoprim (TMP). Comparatively, enhanced oxidation of TMP was up to 100% with the addition of R(1) to FeVI. Interestingly, addition of S2O32- (i.e., R(2)) also achieves the enhanced oxidation to 100%. Removal efficiency of TMP depends on the molar ratio ([R(1)]:[FeVI] or [R(2)]:[FeVI]). Most of the reductants have the highest removal at molar ratio of 0.125. A FeVI-S2O32- system also oxidizes rapidly a wide range of organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, artificial sweetener, and X-ray contrast media) in water and real water matrices. FeV and FeIV as the oxidative species in the FeVI-S2O32--contaminant system are elucidated by determining removal of contaminants in oxygenated and deoxygenated water, applying probing agent, and identifying oxidized products of TMP and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by FeVI-S2O32- systems. Significantly, elimination of SO2 from sulfonamide (i.e., SDM) is observed for the first time.