Novel binding interactions of the DNA fragment d(pGpG) cross-linked by the antitumor active compound tetrakis(mu-carboxylato)dirhodium(II,II).
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Insight into the N7/O6 equatorial binding interactions of the antitumor active complex Rh(2)(OAc)(4)(H(2)O)(2) (OAc(-) = CH(3)CO(2)(-)) with the nucleotide 5'-GMP and the DNA fragment d(pGpG) has been obtained by one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. The lack of N7 protonation at low pH values and the significant increase in the acidity of N1-H (pK(a) approximately 5.6 as compared to 8.5 for N7 only bound platinum adducts), indicated by the pH dependence study of the H8 (1)H NMR resonance for the HT (head-to-tail) isomer of Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2), are consistent with bidentate N7/O6 binding of the guanine. The H8 (1)H NMR resonance of the HH (head-to-head) Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) isomer, as well as the 5'-G and 3'-G H8 resonances of the Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] adduct exhibit pH-independent titration curves, attributable to the added effect of the 5'-phosphate group deprotonation at a pH value similar to that of the N1 site. The enhancement in the acidity of N1-H, with respect to N7 only bound metal adducts, afforded by the O6 binding of the bases to the rhodium centers, has been corroborated by monitoring the pH dependence of the purine C6 and C2 (13)C NMR resonances for Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) and Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)]. The latter studies resulted in pK(a) values in good agreement with those derived from the pH-dependent (1)H NMR titrations of the H8 resonances. Comparison of the (13)C NMR resonances of C6 and C2 for the dirhodium adducts Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) and Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] with the corresponding resonances of the unbound ligands at pH 8.0, showed substantial downfield shifts of Deltadelta approximately 11.0 and 6.0 ppm, respectively. The HH arrangement of the bases in the Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] adduct is evidenced by intense H8/H8 ROE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectrum. The presence of the terminal 5'-phosphate group in d(pGpG) results in stabilization of one left-handed Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] HH1 L conformer, due to the steric effect of the 5'-group, favoring left canting in cisplatin-DNA adducts. Complete characterization of the Rh(2)(OAc)(2[d(pGpG)] adduct revealed notable structural features that resemble those of cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2) [d(pGpG)]]; the latter involve repuckering of the 5'-G sugar ring to C3'-endo (N-type) conformation, retention of C2'-endo (S-type) 3'-G sugar ring conformation, and anti orientation with respect to the glycosyl bonds. The superposition of the low energy Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] conformers, generated by simulated annealing calculations, with the crystal structure of cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2) [d(pGpG)]], reveals remarkable similarities between the adducts; not only are the bases almost completely destacked upon coordination to the metal in both cases, but they are favorably poised to accommodate the bidentate N7/O6 binding to the dirhodium unit. Unexpectedly, the two metal-metal bonded rhodium centers are capable of engaging in cis binding to GG intrastrand sites by establishing N7/O6 bridges that span the Rh-Rh bond.