Identification of an l-Phenylalanine Binding Site Enhancing the Cooperative Responses of the Calcium-sensing Receptor to Calcium*
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Functional positive cooperative activation of the extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o)-sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of the family C G protein-coupled receptors, by [Ca(2+)]o or amino acids elicits intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. Here, we report the central role of predicted Ca(2+)-binding site 1 within the hinge region of the extracellular domain (ECD) of CaSR and its interaction with other Ca(2+)-binding sites within the ECD in tuning functional positive homotropic cooperativity caused by changes in [Ca(2+)]o. Next, we identify an adjacent L-Phe-binding pocket that is responsible for positive heterotropic cooperativity between [Ca(2+)]o and L-Phe in eliciting CaSR-mediated [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. The heterocommunication between Ca(2+) and an amino acid globally enhances functional positive homotropic cooperative activation of CaSR in response to [Ca(2+)]o signaling by positively impacting multiple [Ca(2+)]o-binding sites within the ECD. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism provides important insights into the longstanding question of how the receptor transduces signals initiated by [Ca(2+)]o and amino acids into intracellular signaling events.
author list (cited authors)
Zhang, C., Huang, Y., Jiang, Y., Mulpuri, N., Wei, L., Hamelberg, D., Brown, E. M., & Yang, J. J.