Removal Processes for Tributyltin During Municipal Wastewater Treatment Academic Article uri icon


  • The fate and behaviour of tributyltin (TBT) at two wastewater treatment works was examined. Both sites had two inlet streams, and each utilised high rate biological filters (biofilters) on one the streams, before treatment of the combined flows on trickling filters, with one having additional tertiary processes, installed to remove ammonia and solids. The study was designed to determine if these processes enhanced the removal of TBT. Degradation of TBT was observed in one of the biofilters, possibly as a result of temperature and hydraulic loading. At the treatment works with tertiary processes, the mass flux showed the overall removal of TBT was 68 %, predominantly due to removal with solids in the primary settlement processes. However, overall removal of 95 % was observed in the conventional trickling filter works with 94 % of this due to biodegradation in the trickling filter. The two works both removed TBT, but at different treatment stages and by different processes. Differences in the form (solubility) of TBT in the influent may have attributed to this, although further understanding of factors controlling degradation would allow for a more complete assessment of the potential of biological processes to remove hazardous compounds from wastewaters. 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Scrimshaw, M. D., Hala, D., Okiemute, A. E., Cartmell, E., & Lester, J. N.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Scrimshaw, MD||Hala, D||Okiemute, AE||Cartmell, E||Lester, JN

publication date

  • February 2013