Spin-Free Quantum Electronic Structure: Its Second Quantization and Para-Fermionics Academic Article uri icon


  • First, the spin-free formulation of electronic structure is reviewed within the standard first-quantized framework, with special attention to its manner of correspondence to the standard antisymmetrized space-spin (ASspin) formulation. Second, within this first-quantized framework, note is made of some "discrepancies" in the correspondence, for example, regarding mismatches of symmetry-related degeneracies. Third, a novel second-quantized spin-free formulation is introduced to overcome these "discrepancies," and so achieve a one-to-one correspondence between ASspin wave functions and second-quantized spin-free wave functions. Yet further, this second-quantized spin-free description enables the identification of electrons as "para-Fermions," at least in the nonrelativistic limit of spin-free interactions. From the point of view of elementary particle physics, a rather complete picture of the behavior of para-Fermions emerges with electrons as a proxy, and so suggests that in fact para-Fermions would be difficult to distinguish from ordinary Fermions, at least in this nonrelativistic limit or with but few such particles. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Klein, D. J.

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Klein, DJ

publication date

  • October 2011