Brain-imaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder. Academic Article uri icon


  • Brain-imaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have rapidly increased in recent years. Structural studies have identified potential smaller volumes of the hippocampus of traumatized and/or PTSD subjects. Functional activation studies have implicated hyperactive or altered functioning of brain regions, such as the amygdala and the insula, and a failure to engage emotional regulatory structures, such as the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Recent neurochemical investigations have suggested that neuromodulatory systems (eg, gamma-aminobutyric acid, micro-opioid) may underlie these aberrant brain activation patterns. This article reviews the literature on structural, functional, and neurochemical brain-imaging studies of PTSD.

published proceedings

  • CNS Spectr

author list (cited authors)

  • Liberzon, I., & Phan, K. L.

citation count

  • 79

complete list of authors

  • Liberzon, Israel||Phan, K Luan

publication date

  • September 2003