Analysis of Production System Components of Container-grown Chrysanthemum for Their Impact on Carbon Footprint and Variable Costs Using Life Cycle Assessment Academic Article uri icon


  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to analyze the production system components of a 20-cm Chrysanthemum grown for the fall market in the north Atlanta region of the United States. The model system consisted of 2 weeks of mist in a greenhouse followed by 9 weeks on an outdoor gravel bed equipped with drip irrigation. The carbon footprint, or global warming potential (GWP), was calculated as 0.555 kg CO2e and the variable costs incurred during the modeled production system (from rooting purchased cuttings to loading the truck for shipment) totaled $0.846. Use of plastics was important in terms of GWP and variable costs with the container contributing 26.7% of the GWP of the product and 12.2% of the variable costs. The substrate accounted for 44.8% of the GWP in this model but only 12.1% of the variable costs. Consumptive water use during misting was determined to be 3.9 L per plant whereas water use during outdoor production was 34.8 L. Because propagation is handled in various ways by Chrysanthemum growers, the potential impact of alternative propagation scenarios on GWP and variable costs, including the purchase of plugs, was also examined.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Ingram, D. L., Hall, C. R., & Knight, J.

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Ingram, Dewayne L||Hall, Charles R||Knight, Joshua

publication date

  • August 2018