CO Imaging in piloted liquid-spray flames using femtosecond two-photon LIF
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Liquid-spray flames are encountered in many practical combustion devices such as gasoline direct injection and diesel engines, gas turbine combustors as well as industrial furnaces. As opposed to gaseous fuels, additional phase-change steps present in liquid sprays not only complicate the overall combustion process, but also make in-situ, laser-based combustion diagnostics challenging. In particular, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) due to incomplete fuel-air mixing and partial oxidation becomes a major challenge. In this study, we apply femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) to measure CO concentration in piloted liquid-spray flames, taking into account possible signal interferences in the 230.1-nm, B 1 ? + ?X 1 ? + excitation scheme. A modified, flat-flame McKenna burner fitted with a direct-injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN) was used to produce piloted liquid-methanol spray flames. Although single-laser-shot OH-PLIF images show the presence of strong turbulent interactions in the core region, shot-averaged OH-PLIF images indicate that near the nozzle-exit region, the primary reaction takes place in an annular region around the droplet cloud, in general. A detailed spectroscopic study reveals that the signal interference at 460?nm originating from the second-order scattering of the excitation laser, which becomes approximately an order of magnitude stronger than CO fluorescence spectral lines near the nozzle exit region. The specific spectral filtering scheme introduced in our recent work is proved to be capable of suppressing interferences primarily originating from C 2 Swan-band emissions. Two-dimensional CO maps along with OH-PLIF flame structure data provide key insights into the CO formation in piloted liquid-spray flames, while providing critical validation datasets for advanced computational models.
author list (cited authors)
Wang, Y., Jain, A., & Kulatilaka, W.