Determination of the rate-limiting steps and chemical mechanism of fructokinase by isotope exchange, isotope partitioning, and pH studies. Academic Article uri icon


  • Isotope exchange studies show that beef liver fructokinase has a random kinetic mechanism in which release of fructose from the enzyme is slower than that catalytic reaction. The stickiness of fructose in the presence of MgATP is confirmed by isotope partition studies, which show it to be released 0.53 times as fast as V1/Et in the presence, and 80--130 times as fast in the absence of MgATP. Fructose-1-P release from it binary complex is not at all rate limiting in the forward direction since no exchange of MgADP back into MgATP could be observed during the forward reaction. Failure to find any isotope effect by the equilibrium perturbation method with [1-18O]fructose (upper limit, 1.003, shows that P--O bond cleavage or formation is not rate limiting. The pH profiles for the forward reaction show a group (probably carboxyl with pK 5.7-6.0 and deltaHion = 0) that must be ionized and a group (perhaps lysine, with pK 9--10, and deltaHion 5-9 kcal/mol) which must be protonated for activity. The profile for the back reaction shows only a group with pK 5.5--6 that must be protonated for activity. A chemical mechanism is proposed in which a carboxyl group on the enzyme accepts a proton from the 1-hydroxyl of fructose during the forward reaction and donates it back during the reverse reaction.

published proceedings

  • Biochemistry

author list (cited authors)

  • Raushel, F. M., & Cleland, W. W.

citation count

  • 24

complete list of authors

  • Raushel, FM||Cleland, WW

publication date

  • May 1977