Bovine liver fructokinase: purification and kinetic properties.
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Fructokinase from beef liver has been purified 2300-fold by acid and heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on Sephadex G-100, DEAE- and CM-cellulose. The purified enzyme is homogeneous by all criteria examined, has a molecular weight of 56 000, and is a dimer of equal molecular weight subunits. The isoelectric point is 5.7. The Michaelis constant for activation by K+ is 15 mM, and the enzyme is also activated by Na+, Rb+, Cs+, NH4+, and TL+. The kinetic mechanism has been determined at pH 7.0, 25 degrees C. The initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition patterns for CrATP, CrADP, and 1-deoxy-D-fructose are consistent with a random kinetic mechanism with the formation of two dead-end complexes. Substrates for fructokinase include: D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-xylulose, L-ribulose, D-sedoheptulose, L-galactoheptulose, D-mannoheptulose, 5-keto-D-fructose, D-ribose, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol, 2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannose, 2,5-anhydro-D-lyxito.l, and D-ribono-gamma-lactone. 5-Thio-D-fructose was not a substate, but was a competitive inhibitor vs. D-fructose. Thus the minimum molecular for substrate activity seems to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-methyl-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran. The configuration of the substituents at carbons 3, 4, and 5 appears not to be critical, but the hydroxymethyl group must have the configuration corresponding to beta-D-(or alpha-L-) keto sugars. The anomeric hydroxyl on carbon 2 is not required (although it contributes to binding), and a wide variety of groups may be present at carbon 5.
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Raushel, F. M., & Cleland, W. W.
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