Measurement of positional isotope exchange rates in enzyme-catalyzed reactions by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry: application to argininosuccinate synthetase.
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Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) has been used to measure positional isotope exchange rates in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The technique has been applied to the reactions catalyzed by acetyl-CoA synthetase and argininosuccinate synthetase. The FAB technique is also able to quantitatively determine the oxygen-18 or oxygen-17 content of nucleotides on as little as 10 nmol of material with no prior derivatization. Acetyl-CoA synthetase has been shown by FAB-MS to catalyze the positional exchange of an oxygen-18 of ATP from the beta-nonbridge position to the alpha beta-bridge position in the presence of acetate. These results are consistent with acetyl adenylate as a reactive intermediate in this reaction. Argininosuccinate synthetase was shown not to catalyze a positional isotope exchange reaction designed to test for the formation of citrulline adenylate as a reactive intermediate. Argininosuccinate synthetase was also found not to catalyze the transfer of oxygen-18 from [ureido-18O]citrulline to the alpha-phosphorus of ATP in the absence of added aspartate. This experiment was designed to test for the transient formation of carbodiimide as a reactive intermediate. These results suggest that either argininosuccinate synthetase does not catalyze the formation of citrulline adenylate or the enzyme is able to completely suppress the rotation of the phosphoryl groups of PPi.