Unobtrusive Sensor-Based Occupancy Facing Direction Detection and Tracking Using Advanced Machine Learning Algorithms
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2001-2012 IEEE. Facing direction detection plays a critical role in human-computer interaction and has a wide application in surveillance systems, driving awareness recognition, smart home appliances, computer games, and so on. Current detection methods are mainly focused on extracting specific patterns from user's optical images, which raises concerns on privacy invasion and these detection techniques do not usually work in a dark environment. To address these concerns, this paper proposes an activity recognition system guided by an unobtrusive sensor (ARGUS). By using a low pixel infrared thermopile array sensor, ARGUS is capable of identifying five facing directions (left 45/90, right 45/90, and front) through the support vector machine classifier. Also two feature extraction methods are compared. One is manually-defined and the other is based on a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) model. The facing direction detection accuracy resulting from manually-defined features reaches 85.3%, 90.6%, and 85.2% at detection distance of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 m, respectively. The level of accuracy resulted from using pre-trained CNN features demonstrates a much more reliable performance (89.1%, 95.3%, and 95.1% at distance of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 m, respectively). In addition, ARGUS has been successfully applied for occupancy tracking with a root mean square error of 0.19 m.