A Robust Bioimpedance Structure for Smartwatch-Based Blood Pressure Monitoring. Academic Article uri icon


  • One potential method to estimate noninvasive cuffless blood pressure (BP) is pulse wave velocity (PWV), which can be calculated by using the distance and the transit time of the blood between two arterial sites. To obtain the pulse waveform, bioimpedance (BI) measurement is a promising approach because it continuously reflects the change in BP through the change in the arterial cross-sectional area. Many studies have investigated BI channels in a vertical direction with electrodes located along the wrist and the finger to calculate PWV and convert to BP; however, the measurement systems were relatively large in size. In order to reduce the total device size for use in a PWV-based BP smartwatch, this study proposed and examined a robust horizontal BI structure. The BI device was also designed to apply in a very small body area. The proposed structure was based on two sets of four electrodes attached around the wrist. Our model was evaluated on 15 human subjects; the PWV values were obtained with various distances between two BI channels to assess the efficacy. The results showed that the designed BI system can monitor pulse rate efficiently in only a 0.5 × 1.75 cm area of the body. The correlation of pulse rate from the proposed design against the reference was 0.98 0.07 (p < 0.001). Our structure yielded higher detection ratios for PWV measurements of 99.0 2.2%, 99.0 2.1%, and 94.8 3.7% at 1, 2, and 3 cm between two BI channels, respectively. The measured PWVs correlated well with the BP standard device at 0.81 0.08 and 0.84 0.07 with low root-mean-squared-errors at 7.47 2.15 mmHg and 5.17 1.81 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The result demonstrates the potential of a new wearable BP smartwatch structure.

published proceedings

  • Sensors (Basel)

altmetric score

  • 1.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Huynh, T. H., Jafari, R., & Chung, W.

citation count

  • 40

complete list of authors

  • Huynh, Toan Huu||Jafari, Roozbeh||Chung, Wan-Young

publication date

  • June 2018