Lethal and sub-lethal effects of the insecticide fipronil on juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus.
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Chemical pesticides are widely used around the world, but at the same time, they may cause direct or indirect risks to many non-target organisms. Recent increased use of insecticides in coastal areas, for example to control invasive tawny crazy ants, raises concern that insecticides may affect ecologically and/or commercially important species found in estuaries. Here, we investigated the lethal and sub-lethal effects of fipronil on juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus over 29 days at five different nominal concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 6.4, and 10.0g/L) in a laboratory experiment. Exposure to all of the fipronil treatments resulted in all individuals dying before the end of the experiment; whereas, no individual died in the control (0.0g/L). The 96-hour LC50 was determined to be 1.3g/L. Shrimp also experienced weight loss under all of the fipronil treatments. Inter-moult interval was increased from 12.21.64day in the control group to 15.50.53day in the 1.0g/L treatment. Lipid content of shrimp increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, behavioral and body color changes were also observed under the fipronil treatments. We conclude F. aztecus is very sensitive to fipronil and monitoring is needed in coastal areas.