Multi-Touch Tablets, E-Books, and an Emerging Multi-Coding/Multi-Sensory Theory for Reading Science e-Textbooks: Considering the Struggling Reader Institutional Repository Document uri icon


  • Pavios Dual-Coding Theory (1991) and Mayers Multimedia Principal (2000) form the foundation for proposing a multi-coding theory centered around Multi-Touch Tablets and the newest generation of e-textbooks to scaffold struggling readers in reading and learning from science textbooks. Using E. O. Wilsons Life on Earth: An Introduction (2012) as a simulation for our essay, we theorize that text, graphics, interactive elements, and audio represent four distinct encoding schemes. Each of these encoding schemes can be used as separate but mutually supportive scaffolds to assist struggling students in reading and learning with science textbooks.

author list (cited authors)

  • Rupley, W. H., Paige, D. D., Rasinski, T. V., & Slough, S. W.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Rupley, William H||Paige, David D||Rasinski, Timothy V||Slough, Scott W

publication date

  • January 2015