Canine hyperadrenocorticism associations with signalment, selected comorbidities and mortality within North American veterinary teaching hospitals
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OBJECTIVE: To describe a large population of dogs with a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism at the time of death in North American veterinary teaching hospitals, and to identify comorbid conditions associated with hyperadrenocorticism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 1519 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism from a population of 70,574 dogs reported to the Veterinary Medical Database. Signalment, presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism, aetiology of hyperadrenocorticism (if described), frequency of select comorbidities and causes of death were evaluated in dogs with and without hyperadrenocorticism. RESULTS: Hyperadrenocorticism was more frequent in females. Neutering was associated with a minor, but significant, increase in the odds of hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism was the presumed cause of death of 393 (25∙9%) of affected dogs. When aetiology was specified (527 dogs, corresponding to 34∙7% of the cases), pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [387 (73∙4%) out of 527 dogs] was more common than functional adrenocortical tumour [136 (25∙8%) out of 527 dogs). Hyperadrenocorticism was over-represented in certain expected (miniature poodle, dachshund) and unexpected (Irish setter, bassett hound) breeds compared with the population at large. Of the select comorbidities investigated, dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were at increased risk for concurrent diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, hypertension, gall bladder mucocoele and thromboembolic disease compared with dogs without hyperadrenocorticism. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperadrenocorticism is significantly associated with certain comorbid conditions but is not a major cause of mortality in affected dogs. Documented patterns now provide targets for prospective clinical research.
author list (cited authors)
Hoffman, J. M., Lourenço, B. N., Promislow, D., & Creevy, K. E.