On the catalytic mechanism of human ATP citrate lyase.
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ATP citrate lyase (ACL) catalyzes an ATP-dependent biosynthetic reaction which produces acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate from citrate and coenzyme A (CoA). Studies were performed with recombinant human ACL to ascertain the nature of the catalytic phosphorylation that initiates the ACL reaction and the identity of the active site residues involved. Inactivation of ACL by treatment with diethylpyrocarbonate suggested the catalytic role of an active site histidine (i.e., His760), which was proposed to form a phosphohistidine species during catalysis. The pH-dependence of the pre-steady-state phosphorylation of ACL with [-(33)P]-ATP revealed an ionizable group with a pK(a) value of ~7.5, which must be unprotonated for the catalytic phosphorylation of ACL to occur. Mutagenesis of His760 to an alanine results in inactivation of the biosynthetic reaction of ACL, in good agreement with the involvement of a catalytic histidine. The nature of the formation of the phospho-ACL was further investigated by positional isotope exchange using [-(18)O(4)]-ATP. The ,-bridge to nonbridge positional isotope exchange rate of [-(18)O(4)]-ATP achieved its maximal rate of 14 s(-1) in the absence of citrate and CoA. This rate decreased to 5 s(-1) when citrate was added, and was found to be 10 s(-1) when both citrate and CoA were present. The rapid positional isotope exchange rates indicated the presence of one or more catalytically relevant, highly reversible phosphorylated intermediates. Steady-state measurements in the absence of citrate and CoA showed that MgADP was produced by both wild type and H760A forms of ACL, with rates at three magnitudes lower than that of k(cat) for the full biosynthetic reaction. The ATPase activity of ACL, along with the small yet significant positional isotope exchange rate observed in H760A mutant ACL (~150 fold less than wild type), collectively suggested the presence of a second, albeit unproductive, phosphoryl transfer in ACL. Mathematical analysis and computational simulation suggested that the desorption of MgADP at a rate of ~7 s(-1) was the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of AcCoA and oxaloacetate.
author list (cited authors)
Fan, F., Williams, H. J., Boyer, J. G., Graham, T. L., Zhao, H., Lehr, R., ... Meek, T. D.
complete list of authors
Fan, Fan||Williams, Howard J||Boyer, Joseph G||Graham, Taylor L||Zhao, Huizhen||Lehr, Ruth||Qi, Hongwei||Schwartz, Benjamin||Raushel, Frank M||Meek, Thomas D