Percutaneous permeation of enantiomers and racemates of chiral drugs and prediction of their flux ratios using thermal data: a pharmaceutical perspective. Academic Article uri icon


  • Albeit pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological differences between enantiomeric pairs or between the pure enantiomers and racemate of chiral drugs are known to exist for decades, we are just beginning to realize that there are apparent differences between these species with respect to their percutaneous permeation as well. Such differences in permeation are likely to be enhanced when chiral drugs are formulated with chiral excipients, necessitating a careful assessment of the effect of formulation excipients on the permeation as well as the overall therapeutic outcomes. The in vitro transport data from the preclinical investigations, using laboratory animal models and/or in vitro cell culture systems, must be carefully validated in vivo as there are differences between these models and the human skin. Mathematical models such as MTMT that utilize the interdependence of certain physicochemical characteristics and percutaneous permeability have a predictive value in assessing the flux behavior of enantiomers and racemates.

published proceedings

  • Chirality

author list (cited authors)

  • Afouna, M. I., Fincher, T. K., Khan, M. A., & Reddy, I. K.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • Afouna, Mohsen I||Fincher, Timothy K||Khan, Mansoor A||Reddy, Indra K

publication date

  • May 2003