Preparation and in vitro characterization of a eutectic based semisolid self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of ubiquinone: mechanism and progress of emulsion formation. Academic Article uri icon


  • The objectives of the present work were, first, to develop a self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the eutectic properties of ubiquinone (CoQ10); and second, to study the progress of emulsion formation and drug release mechanisms by turbidimetry and droplet size analysis. Binary phase diagrams of CoQ10 with menthol and essential oils were constructed and used to develop the self-nanoemulsified formulation. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification region. Release mechanisms of the resultant formulas were quantified using turbidimetry in combination with dissolution studies. Turbidity time profiles revealed three distinctive regions: lag phase, plateau, and the pseudolinear phase. Lag phase was attributed to the liquid crystalline properties of the formula. Plateau turbidity was correlated with droplet size. Laser diffraction analysis revealed an average droplet diameter of 100 nm. Emulsification rate was obtained from the corrected slope of the pseudolinear phase of the profile. Stability of the formula was further evaluated using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) attached to an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory. The present study revealed a eutectic based semisolid self-emulsified delivery system that can overcome the drawbacks of the traditional emulsified systems such as low solubility and irreversible precipitation of the active drug in the vehicle with time.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

altmetric score

  • 6

author list (cited authors)

  • Nazzal, S., Smalyukh, I. I., Lavrentovich, O. D., & Khan, M. A.

citation count

  • 196

complete list of authors

  • Nazzal, S||Smalyukh, II||Lavrentovich, OD||Khan, Mansoor A

publication date

  • March 2002