A quality by design (QbD) case study on liposomes containing hydrophilic API: I. Formulation, processing design and risk assessment. Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this study was to extend QbD principles to liposomal drug products containing a hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to demonstrate both the feasibility and the advantages of applying QbD concepts to liposome based complex parenteral controlled release systems. The anti-viral drug Tenofovir was selected as a model compound. Desired properties for two of the key liposome drug product qualities, namely the particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency, were defined and evaluated. It was observed that the liposome preparation process significantly affects liposome particle size, and this resulted in considerable variation in the drug encapsulation efficiency. Lipid chain length did not have a significant effect on drug encapsulation efficiency. However, lipid concentration did affect the drug encapsulation efficiency with higher lipid concentrations resulting in higher drug encapsulation. The use of risk assessment in this study assisted the identification of eight high risk factors that may impact liposome drug encapsulation efficiency and particle size.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Xu, X., Khan, M. A., & Burgess, D. J.

citation count

  • 111

complete list of authors

  • Xu, Xiaoming||Khan, Mansoor A||Burgess, Diane J

publication date

  • October 2011