Focused beam reflectance measurement to monitor nimodipine precipitation process. Academic Article uri icon


  • Crystallization of nimodipine in liquid-filled soft gelatin capsule during storage was reported for some commercial products, resulting in product recalls due to product quality and more importantly safety concerns. In this study, a real time particle monitoring tool, focused beam reflectance measurement, was used to evaluate the precipitation conditions of nimodipine in co-solvents. Upon water addition, two particle populations were discovered, appearing at different percentage of water content. Two transitions (i.e. sudden increase in particle counts) were observed, possibility related to nucleation and crystal growth of nimodipine. Furthermore, lowering storage temperature increased the tendency of nimodipine precipitation. Most critically, it was determined that with certain excipient, the drug precipitation occurred at approximately 7% (w/w) water content. Considering that all the orally administered liquid filled soft gelatin capsule shells contain residue water content as plasticizer, moisture transfer from the shell to the formulation may occur during long term storage, resulting in drug precipitation, particularly under cold temperature conditions.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Xu, X., Siddiqui, A., & Khan, M. A.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Xu, Xiaoming||Siddiqui, Akhtar||Khan, Mansoor A

publication date

  • November 2013