Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1. Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110M, 125M, 150M, 200M, 350M (-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing 80% -AL), DCL11 (spray dried -lactose monohydrate containing 15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated -lactose monohydrate containing 12% -AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work).

published proceedings

  • Drug Dev Ind Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Moolchandani, V., Augsburger, L. L., Gupta, A., Khan, M., Langridge, J., & Hoag, S. W.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • Moolchandani, Vikas||Augsburger, Larry L||Gupta, Abhay||Khan, Mansoor||Langridge, John||Hoag, Stephen W

publication date

  • September 2015