Kinetic mechanism of acetyl-CoA synthase: steady-state synthesis at variable Co/Co2 pressures.
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Steady-state initial rates of acetyl-CoA synthesis (upsilon/[E(tot)]) catalyzed by acetyl-CoA synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum (ACS) were determined at various partial pressures of CO and CO2. When [CO] was varied from 0 to 100 microM in a balance of Ar, rates increased sharply from 0.3 to 100 min(-1). At [CO] > 100 microM, rates declined sharply and eventually stabilized at 10 min(-1) at 980 microM CO. Equivalent experiments carried out in CO2 revealed similar inhibitory behavior and residual activity under saturating [CO]. Plots of upsilon/[E(tot)] vs [CO2] at different fixed inhibitory [CO] revealed that Vmax/[E(tot)] (kcat) decreased with increasing [CO]. Plots of upsilon/[E(tot)] vs [CO2] at different fixed noninhibitory [CO] showed that Vmax/[E(tot)] was insensitive to changes in [CO]. Of eleven candidate mechanisms, the simplest one that fit the data best had the following key features: (a) either CO or CO2 (at a designated reductant level and pH) activate the enzyme (E' + CO right arrow over left arrow E, E' + CO2/2e-/2H+ right arrow over left arrow E); (b) CO and CO2 are both substrates that compete for the same enzyme form (E + CO right arrow over left arrow ECO, E + CO2/2e-/2H+ right arrow over left arrow ECO, and ECO --> E + P); (c) between 3 and 5 molecules of CO bind cooperatively to an enzyme form different from that to which CO2 and substrate CO bind (nCO + ECO right arrow over left arrow (CO)nECO), and this inhibits catalysis; and (d) the residual activity arises from either the (CO)nECO state or a heterogeneous form of the enzyme. Implications of these results, focusing on the roles of CO and CO2 in catalysis, are discussed.