Frequency-modulated spectra of coherently driven systems
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Frequency-modulated spectra of coherently driven quantum systems are calculated using the density-matrix formulation. The modulated spectra are shown to be related to the two-time correlation functions of the polarization operators of the system. In the limit of modulation frequencies small compared to the width of the spectral features under study, the in-phase signal (quadrature signal) is shown to be related to the derivative of absorption (second derivative of dispersion) in the absence of any modulation. Modulation spectra in strong fields are calculated explicitly for two-level systems; such spectra are shown to yield useful information concerning light shifts and Rabi splittings. The influence of laser temporal fluctuations on such modulation spectra is also discussed. 1981 The American Physical Society.
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