Rigid, conjugated, fluoresceinated thymidine triphosphates: syntheses and polymerase mediated incorporation into DNA analogues.
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Syntheses of a unique set of energy transfer dye labeled nucleoside triphosphates, compounds 1-3, are described. Attempts to prepare these compounds were only successful if the triphosphorylation reaction was performed before coupling the dye to the nucleobase, and not the other way around. Compounds were prepared as both the 2'-deoxy (a) and 2',3'-dideoxy- (b) forms. They feature progressively longer rigid conjugated linkers connecting the nucleobase and the hydroxyxanthone moiety. UV spectra of the parent nucleosides 12-14 show that as the length of the linker increases so does the absorption of the donor in the 320-330 nm region, but with relatively little red-shift of the maxima. Fluorescence spectra of the same compounds show that radiation in the 320-330 nm region results in predominant emission from the fluorescein. When the linker is irradiated at 320 nm, the only significant emission observed corresponds to the hydroxyxanthone part of the molecules at 520 nm; this corresponds to an effective Stokes' shift of 200 nm. As the absorption at 320-330 nm by the linker increases with length, so does the intensity of the fluorescein emission. A gel assay was used to gauge relative incorporation efficiencies of compounds 1-3, dTTP, ddTTP, and 6-TAMRA-ddTTP. Throughout, the thermostable polymerase TaqFS was used, as it is the one most widely applied in high throughput DNA sequencing. This assay showed that only compounds 3 were incorporated efficiently; these have the longest linkers. Of these, the 2'-deoxy nucleoside 3 a was incorporated and did not prevent the polymerase from extending the chain further. The 2',3'-dideoxy nucleoside 3 b was incorporated only about 430 times less efficiently than ddTTP under the same conditions, and caused chain termination. The implications of these studies on modified sequencing protocols are discussed.
author list (cited authors)
Thoresen, L. H., Jiao, G., Haaland, W. C., Metzker, M. L., & Burgess, K.
complete list of authors
Thoresen, Lars H||Jiao, Guan-Sheng||Haaland, Wade C||Metzker, Michael L||Burgess, Kevin