Distribution of bile acid receptor TGR5 in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.
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Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5) is a receptor for bile acids and its expression has been described in a variety of tissues and species. Characterization of TGR5 distribution and function has been investigated in drug discovery for the treatment of metabolic diseases in humans. Because dogs are one of the species used in biomedical research and share some similarities with human gastrointestinal diseases, the objective of this study was to characterize the distribution of TGR5 receptor in the canine species. This study characterizes the distribution of TGR5 receptor in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas of 8 dogs. The distribution of TGR5 antigen and mRNA expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization, respectively. TGR5 immunolabeling was located in the cell membrane or in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. TGR5 immunolabeling was broadly distributed in macrophages, endothelial cells, ganglion cells, and leiomyocytes throughout all the examined tissues. Epithelial cells from tongue, stomach to rectum, as well as from gallbladder, biliary and pancreatic ducts demonstrated TGR5 immunolabeling. In endocrine cells, TGR5 immunolabeling was observed in intestinal enteroendocrine cells and islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The hepatocytes had a unique pattern of immunolabeling located on the canalicular surface of the cell membrane. TGR5 mRNA expression was located mainly in the nucleus and the only negative cells throughout all examined tissues were striated muscle from tongue and esophagus, muscularis mucosae, esophageal glands, and hepatic sinusoids. These findings indicate that the bile acid receptor TGR5 is ubiquitously distributed in the canine gastrointestinal tract.