Growth, Debt, and Military Spending in Southeast Asia Academic Article uri icon


  • Military spending and its relationship to gross national product (GNP), GNP growth, central government expenditures (CGE), CGE growth, and external indebtedness are examined in six Southeast Asian countries: Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Military spending in the region varies widely and accounts for only a small portion of total developing country military expenditures. Similarly, the defence burden in the region varies greatly but is relatively low compared to the developing countries generally. National economies and central government expenditures in the region have grown faster than military spending. Finally, military spending has been constrained by external indebtedness in the most highly indebted countries in the region (in Indonesia military spending has been curbed by declining oil revenues as well as increased foreign borrowing).

published proceedings

  • Contemporary Southeast Asia

author list (cited authors)

  • ROSS, A. L.

complete list of authors

  • ROSS, AL

publication date

  • January 1990