- Effects of drying on the measurement of mechanical properties of bone by nanoindentation methods have been examined. Tests were conducted to measure the elastic modulus and hardness of two cross-sectional cortical specimens obtained from adjacent areas of bovine femur. One specimen was thoroughly dried in air prior to testing while the other was stored in deionized water. The properties of osteons and interstitial lamellae showed statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) and were therefore investigated separately. Drying was found to increase the elastic modulus by 9.7% for interstitial lamellae and 15.4% for osteons. The hardness was also found to increase by 12.2% for interstitial lamellae and 17.6% for osteons.