Strong-Signal Theory of a Free-Electron Laser
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The strong-signal regime of a free-electron laser is analyzed in terms of a set of "generalized Bloch equations." We show that for current free-electron-laser configurations the saturation will be reached for a field on the order of 107 V/m, with an efficiency at saturation of 510-3. However, a strong reshaping of the electron distribution may alter the efficiency of free-electron lasers in cases where the electron beam is recycled from one shot to the next. 1976 The American Physical Society.