Group diversity's influence on sport teams and organizations: a meta-analytic examination and identification of key moderators Academic Article uri icon


  • © 2018, © 2018 European Association for Sport Management. Research question: The purpose of this study was to examine how group diversity was associated with subsequent outcomes, and whether these associations varied by the type of diversity, setting, sport role, or type of outcome. Research method: The authors implemented a meta-analytic technique to examine the influence of group diversity on a variety of outcomes. Results and findings: Results showed that overall group diversity has a positive effect on group outcomes (r c =.05; z-value = 4.53, p <.001; 95% CI:.03,.07). Sport role (administrator or coaches and players or exercisers), setting type (college athletics, professional sports, or non-profit sports), outcome type (organizational effectiveness, affective outcomes, or team performance) all served to moderate the relationship between team diversity and subsequent outcomes. Implications: The study found group diversity has positive effects on group effectiveness, though the effects are small. The findings are nevertheless instructive because they provide an effect size estimated across a wide range of investigations and suggest that group diversity is positively associated with important group outcomes. The pattern of results might encourage practitioners in sport organizations and professional teams to welcome diverse individuals in their groups by demonstrating this positive link between group diversity and group outcomes.

altmetric score

  • 7.15

author list (cited authors)

  • Lee, W., & Cunningham, G. B.

citation count

  • 11

publication date

  • June 2018