Health disparity of prostate cancer: Molecular insights into the role of exosomes
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of morbidity among older men in the States. The morbidity and mortality rates of PCa are more likely to be twice in in African Americans (AA) than in Caucasian Americans (CA) men. Owing to multiple factors contribute to such disparities; it remains unclear whether the high incidence and mortality rates of PCa among AA men are triggered by genetic and epigenetic factors. The molecular mechanisms underlying these biological factors have yet to be fully elucidated. Exosomes are cell-derived extracellular bodies secreted by normal and tumor cells to promote cell-cell communications. Exosomes acting as a biological cargo and shuttle various molecules, including microRNAs, mRNAs, lipids, DNA and proteins to recipient cells. Our goal here is to illustrate the role of exosomes contributing to different biological activities, especially aggressive behavior of cancer cells and poor clinical outcomes of PCa in AA patients. We discussed the need for discovering new biomarkers used in diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. This followed by unravelling the association between exosomes and induction of different signaling pathways to promote survival, cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis and escape the immune response with a special focus on cancer disparities among AA men. This review warrants more studies to build on these recent findings for future understanding of the role of PCa-associated exosomes in promoting PCa aggressiveness in AA and other cancer disparities. Adopting such exosomal findings in cancer and other chronic diseases might help to eliminate morbidity and mortality disparities among US minorities.
author list (cited authors)
Ali, H., Gad, S. A., Deep, G., Ali, H. I., & Abd Elmageed, Z. Y.