Part I: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazole-benzimidazole conjugates as checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) inhibitors with studying their activities alone and in combination with genotoxic drugs
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Activated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is a tumor suppressor as one of the main enzymes that affect the cell cycle. 2-Biarylbenzimidazoles are potent selective class of Chk2 inhibitors; the structure-based design was applied to synthesize a new series of this class with replacing the lateral aryl group by substituted pyrazoles. Ten pyrazole-benzimidazole conjugates from the best fifty candidates according to docking programs have been subjected to chemical synthesis in this study. The activities of the conjugates 5-14 as checkpoint kinase inhibitors and as antitumor alone and in combination with genotoxic drugs were evaluated. The effect of compounds 7 and 12 on cell-cycle phases was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis. Antitumor activity of compounds 7 and 12 as single-agents and in combinations with doxorubicin was assessed in breast cancer bearing animals induced by MNU. The Results indicated that compounds 5-14 inhibited Chk2 activity with high potency (IC50 52.8 nM-5.5 nM). The cytotoxicity of both cisplatin and doxorubicin were significantly potentiated by the most of the conjugates against MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 7 and 12 and their combinations with doxorubicin induced the cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, compound 7 exhibited marked higher antitumor activity as a single agent in animals than it's combination with doxorubicin or doxorubicin alone. The combination of compound 12 with doxorubicin was greatly effective on animal than their single-dose treatment. In conclusion, pyrazole-benzimidazole conjugates are highly active Chk2 inhibitors that have anticancer activity and potentiate activity of genotoxic anticancer therapies and deserve further evaluations.
author list (cited authors)
Galal, S. A., Abdelsamie, A. S., Shouman, S. A., Attia, Y. M., Ali, H. I., Tabll, A., ... El-Diwani, H. I.