Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Pyrrolizine Derivatives as COX Inhibitors with Anti-Inflammatory/Analgesic Activities and Low Ulcerogenic Liability. Academic Article uri icon


  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and pain relief medications. However, their use is associated with many drawbacks, including mainly serious gastric and renal complications. In an attempt to circumvent these risks, a set of N-(4-bromophenyl)-7-cyano-6-substituted-H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors. The structural elucidation, in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and hot plate assay, were performed, respectively. From the results obtained, it was found that the newly synthesized pyrrolizines exhibited IC50 values in the range of 2.45-5.69 M and 0.85-3.44 M for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. Interestingly, compounds 12, 13, 16 and 17 showed higher anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities compared to ibuprofen. Among these derivatives, compounds 16 and 19 displayed better safety profile than ibuprofen in acute ulcerogenicity and histopathological studies. Furthermore, the docking studies revealed that compound 17 fits nicely into COX-1 and COX-2 binding sites with the highest binding affinity, while compound 16 exerted the highest binding affinity for 5-LOX. In light of these findings, these novel pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide derivatives represent a promising scaffold for further development into potential dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors with safer gastric profile.

published proceedings

  • Molecules

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Gouda, A. M., Ali, H. I., Almalki, W. H., Azim, M. A., Abourehab, M., & Abdelazeem, A. H.

citation count

  • 25

complete list of authors

  • Gouda, Ahmed M||Ali, Hamed I||Almalki, Waleed H||Azim, Mohamed A||Abourehab, Mohammed AS||Abdelazeem, Ahmed H

publication date

  • February 2016