Ultrasound Image and Augmented Reality Guidance for Off‐pump, Closed, Beating, Intracardiac Surgery Academic Article uri icon


  • Our project is the reintroduction of off-pump intracardiac surgery using the Universal Cardiac Introducer (UCI) for safe intracardiac access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate multimodality visualization using three ultrasound modalities and ultrasound augmented with virtual reality. Image guidance was tested on implanting a mitral valve prosthesis via the UCI in 12 pigs. Initially, two-dimensional (2-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound (intracardiac echocardiography [ICE]), and three-dimensional (3-D) epicardial ultrasound were utilized. Ultrasound augmented with virtual reality was used in the last three experiments. A 2-D TEE assisted navigating the prosthesis into the orifice. Positioning was not intuitive and required trial and error method. A 3-D epicardial ultrasound allowed positioning of the valve into the orifice. Positioning of the clip was difficult because of artifacts with multiple reflections and shadowing. Augmented reality displayed the entire prosthesis and the tools without artifacts; provided intuitive information on navigation, positioning, and orientation of tools; and improved significantly image guidance and surgical skill. Augmented virtual reality, with tracked 2-D or 3-D ultrasound imaging, provides guidance that can effectively substitute for direct vision during beating heart intracardiac surgery.

author list (cited authors)

  • Bainbridge, D., Jones, D. L., Guiraudon, G. M., & Peters, T. M.

citation count

  • 16

publication date

  • November 2008