In vivo performance of a visible wavelength optical sensor for monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygenation.
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Traumatic injury resulting in hemorrhage is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. The current standard of care for trauma patients is to restore hemostasis by controlling bleeding and administering intravenous volume resuscitation. Adequate resuscitation to restore tissue blood flow and oxygenation is critical within the first hours following admission to assess severity and avoid complications. However, current clinical methods for guiding resuscitation are not sensitive or specific enough to adequately understand the patient condition. To better address the shortcomings of the current methods, an approach to monitor intestinal perfusion and oxygenation using a multiwavelength (470, 560, and 630nm) optical sensor has been developed based on photoplethysmography and reflectance spectroscopy. Specifically, two sensors were developed using three wavelengths to measure relative changes in the small intestine. Using vessel occlusion, systemic changes in oxygenation input, and induction of hemorrhagic shock, the capabilities and sensitivity of the sensor were explored in vivo. Pulsatile and nonpulsatile components of the red, blue, and green wavelength signals were analyzed for all three protocols (occlusion, systemic oxygenation changes, and shock) and were shown to differentiate perfusion and oxygenation changes in the jejunum. The blue and green signals produced better correlation to perfusion changes during occlusion and shock, while the red and blue signals, using a new correlation algorithm, produced better data for assessing changes in oxygenation induced both systemically and locally during shock. The conventional modulation ratio method was found to be an ineffective measure of oxygenation in the intestine due to noise and an algorithm was developed based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. The method utilized the difference in phase between two different wavelength signals to assess oxygen content. A combination of measures from the three wavelengths provided verification of oxygenation and perfusion states, and showed promise for the development of a clinical monitor.