Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: evidence and place in therapy
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Type 2 diabetes effects millions of people yet remains difficult to treat with oral pharmacotherapy. Metformin is the first line recommended therapy, and current guidelines suggest individualized therapy for second line selection. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are the newest class of agents in treating type 2 diabetes via an insulin independent mechanism to lower blood glucose. Currently marketed agents, including canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin, reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ~0.8-1%, reduce fasting and post prandial glucose, and have little hypoglycemia associated with them when added to therapies including metformin, a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or insulin. Patients receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors have reduced weight and blood pressure, but are more susceptible to urinary tract infections and genital mycotic infections. This review summarizes current literature regarding the SGLT-2 inhibitors.
author list (cited authors)
Minze, M. G., Koffarnus, R. L., Bailey, T. A., Diec, S., & Edwards, K. L.