Emissions modelling and impact assessment of fugitive particulate matter in arid and semi-arid region
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2018 Hungarian Meteorological Service. All Rights Reserved. Countries in the developing arid and semi-arid regions (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia) are experiencing a large wave of urbanization and industrialization, adversely compromising the areas air quality. The hot climate and dry, arid conditions promote the emitting of fugitive Particulate Matter (fPM); particles emitted unintentionally by escaping a process (e.g. loading and unloading of materials, abrasion of road wear, or dust resuspensions) or emitted naturally by wind erosion. Over the recent years, particulate matter (PM) pollution in arid regions had become a topic of increasing concern due to the reported health hazards associated with its exposure. However, accurate determination of fPM introduces a big challenge in scientific research due to the uncertainty of their behaviour. In this study, we examined two sources that are believed to contribute significantly to fPM in arid regions: (1) emissions from loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonate, common in dry and semi-dry regions) and (2) non-exhaust traffic induced emissions (from brake, tyre and road abrasion as well as resuspensions generated by passing vehicles). Field campaigns were carried out to measure fPM concentrations from loose soils at a construction site and a highly trafficked road within the city of Doha, Qatar. Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) was used in an iterative manner to calculate emission fluxes of fPM due to wind erosion, and fitted to a power function to establish the wind velocity dependence. Herein we present the results from the completed loose soil study and the preliminary impact assessment of the fugitive particulates.