Moderation in sport management research: room for growth Academic Article uri icon


  • 2018 Taylor & Francis Moderators are variables that affect the relationship between a predictor and outcome. They help to clarify otherwise ambiguous patterns of results, extend theory, and signal the growth of a field. Given the importance of moderators, the authors offer an overview of methodological and statistical considerations for testing moderation and then examine sport management scholars use of moderation in their research. A content analysis of European Sport Management Quarterly, Journal of Sport Management, and Sport Management Review shows that tests of moderation have not followed the growth in scholarship in the field. Further analyses showed (a) analysis of variance was the most popular analytical tool employed; (b) one in six tests of moderation were conducted incorrectly; and (c) 13% of tests for moderation were conducted absent specific hypotheses or research questions. The authors offer implications for sport management researchers.

published proceedings

  • Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science

altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Cunningham, G. B., & Ahn, N. Y.

citation count

  • 23

complete list of authors

  • Cunningham, George B||Ahn, Na Young

publication date

  • October 2019