Criterion A of the AMPD in HiTOP. Academic Article uri icon


  • The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM-5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits). A proposed alternative to the DSM-5 more generally is an empirically based dimensional organization of psychopathology identified as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP; Kotov etal., 2017 ). HiTOP currently includes, at the highest level, a general factor of psychopathology. Further down are the five domains of detachment, antagonistic externalizing, disinhibited externalizing, thought disorder, and internalizing (along with a provisional sixth somatoform dimension) that align with Criterion B. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential inclusion and placement of the self-interpersonal deficits of the DSM-5 Section III Criterion A within HiTOP.

published proceedings

  • J Pers Assess

altmetric score

  • 7.3

author list (cited authors)

  • Widiger, T. A., Bach, B. o., Chmielewski, M., Clark, L. A., DeYoung, C., Hopwood, C. J., ... Thomas, K. M.

citation count

  • 73

complete list of authors

  • Widiger, Thomas A||Bach, Bo||Chmielewski, Michael||Clark, Lee Anna||DeYoung, Colin||Hopwood, Christopher J||Kotov, Roman||Krueger, Robert F||Miller, Joshua D||Morey, Leslie C||Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N||Patrick, Christopher J||Pincus, Aaron L||Samuel, Douglas B||Sellbom, Martin||South, Susan C||Tackett, Jennifer L||Watson, David||Waugh, Mark H||Wright, Aidan GC||Zimmermann, Johannes||Bagby, R Michael||Cicero, David C||Conway, Christopher C||De Clercq, Barbara||Docherty, Anna R||Eaton, Nicholas R||Forbush, Kelsie T||Haltigan, JD||Ivanova, Masha Y||Latzman, Robert D||Lynam, Donald R||Markon, Kristian E||Reininghaus, Ulrich||Thomas, Katherine M

publication date

  • July 2019