Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis Can Be Successfully Treated With TMJ Concepts Patient-Fitted Total Joint Prosthesis and Autogenous Fat Grafts.
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PURPOSE: To measure and identify factors associated with treatment outcomes for patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis treated with TMJ Concepts patient-fitted total joint prostheses and autogenous fat grafts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated records of patients with TMJ ankylosis from a single private practice, treated from 1992 to 2011, who met the following inclusion criteria: 1) radiographic evidence of bony ankylosis, 2) limited incisal opening, 3) minimum of 12months' follow-up, and 4) treatment with TMJ Concepts (Ventura, CA)/Techmedica (Camarillo, CA) total joint prostheses and fat grafts. For each patient, the number of previous TMJ surgical procedures, as well as the estimated age of ankylosis onset, age at surgery, and length of postoperative follow-up, was recorded. Subjective evaluations were made with Likert-like scales (from 0 to 10) for 1) TMJ pain, 2) headache and facial pain, 3) jaw function, 4) diet, and 5) disability. Objective evaluations included maximal incisal opening and excursion movements. Nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: There were 32 patients (22 female and 10 male patients) with 48 ankylosed TMJs (16 bilateral and 16 unilateral) in this study, with a mean age of 39years (range, 11 to 68years), 2 or more previous TMJ surgical procedures in 69%, and a mean follow-up period of 68months (range, 12 to 168months). Trauma was the major etiology of TMJ ankylosis, occurring in 17 of 32 patients (53%). The following improvements occurred: The median value for TMJ pain changed from 8.0 preoperatively to 1.5 at longest follow-up; headache, from 8 to 3.5; facial pain, from 8 to 4; jaw function, from 8 to 2.5; diet, from 7 to 3; and disability, from 7 to 1.5. The median incisal opening was 14.5mm (interquartile range, 6.3 to 20mm) preoperatively and 35mm (interquartile range, 30 to 40mm) at longest follow-up. The median left lateral excursion improved from 0.5 to 2mm, and the median right lateral excursion improved from 1 to 1.3mm. All of these improvements were highly significant (P < .001, Wilcoxon tests). Equally favorable outcomes were found in patients with 12 to 48months of maximal follow-up and patients with more than 48months of maximal follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of TMJ ankylosis with the TMJ Concepts patient-fitted total joint prosthesis in combination with fat grafting around the articulation area of the prosthesis is a viable and predictable method for improving pain levels, function, and quality of life, as well as prevention of reankylosis of the TMJ.