The genetic basis of population structure in white marlin (Kajikia albida) is not well understood. Previous evaluation of genetic population structure in this species utilized a small number of molecular markers to survey genetic variation across opportunistically collected samples of adults, resulting in statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation for some pairwise comparisons and global levels of genetic differentiation that approached statistical significance. This study increased statistical power to improve resolution of genetic population structure in white marlin by surveying a larger number of molecular markers across sample collections of increased size, including collections from additional geographic locations and a robust collection of larvae. Increased statistical power resulted in lower levels of genetic heterogeneity compared with the previous study, and results were consistent with the presence of a single genetic stock of white marlin in the Atlantic Ocean. These results indicate that when statistical power is low, the ability to distinguish noise from a true signal of population structure is compromised. This relationship is especially important for population genetic assessments of marine fishes where genetic differentiation, if it exists, is expected to be low.