Functional establishment of introduced chlorobenzoate degraders following bioaugmentation with newly activated soil. Enhanced contaminant remediation via activated soil bioaugmentation. Academic Article uri icon


  • Introduced degraders often do not survive when applied to polluted sites; however, the potential for successful bioaugmentation may be increased if newly activated soil (containing indigenous degrader populations recently exposed to the contaminant) or potentially active soil (containing indigenous degrader populations not previously exposed to the contaminant) is used as the inoculant. To investigate this concept, Madera and Oversite soils were amended with 0 or 500 micrograms of 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorobenzoate per gram soil. The Madera degraded 2-chlorobenzoate while the Oversite degraded 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate. After 22 days of incubation, non-active soils that had not degraded chlorobenzoate were bioaugmented with the appropriate activated soil that had been exposed to and degraded chlorobenzoate. Thus, Oversite soil that had not degraded 2-chlorobenzoate was bioaugmented with Madera soil that had degraded 2-chlorobenzoate. Likewise, Madera soil that had not degraded 3- or 4-chlorobenzoate was bioaugmented with the Oversite soil that had degraded 3- or 4-chlorobenzoate. Additionally, the non-active soils were bioaugmented with the corresponding potentially active soils. The Oversite soil amended with activated Madera soil degraded the 2-chlorobenzoate within 3 days of bioaugmentation. The Madera soil amended with activated Oversite soils degraded the 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate within 20 and 6 days, respectively. Large degrader populations developed in microcosms bioaugmented with activated soil, and shifts in the 3- and 4-CB degrader community structures occurred following bioaugmentation. In contrast, bioaugmentation with potentially active soil did not impact degradation. The results indicate the potential for bioaugmentation with newly activated soil to enhance contaminant degradation.

published proceedings

  • Biodegradation

author list (cited authors)

  • Gentry, T. J., Josephson, K. L., & Pepper, I. L.

citation count

  • 24

complete list of authors

  • Gentry, Terry J||Josephson, Karen L||Pepper, Ian L

publication date

  • January 2004