Fluoride incidence in groundwater: a case study from Talupula, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Fluoride-rich groundwater is well known in granite aquifers in India and the world. This study examines the fluoride content of well water in different parts of Talupula area of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. It also focuses on fluorides and their relationship to water-quality parameters and their impacts on humans through groundwater resources. Most parts of the area covered in this region are inherently enriched with fluorides threatening several ecosystems. The fluoride concentration ranges between 0.78 and 6.10 mg L. The alkaline pH and high bicarbonate are responsible for release of fluoride-bearing minerals into groundwater. The arid climate of the region, the granitic rocks and the low freshwater exchange due to periodical drought conditions are the factors responsible for the higher incidence of fluorides in the groundwater resources. Apart from these prevailing natural conditions, years of neglect and lack of restoration programs on terrestrial and aquatic environments have led to accumulative impacts on groundwater, soils, plants, and animals including humans. The people dependent on these groundwater resources are prone to dental fluorosis and mild skeletal fluorosis.