-1,3 glucan derived from Euglena gracilis and Algamune enhances innate immune responses of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus L.). Academic Article uri icon


  • To reduce susceptibility to stressors and diseases, immune-modulators such as -glucans have been proven effective tools to enhance the innate immune responses of fish. Consequently, commercial sources of this polysaccharide are becoming increasingly more available. Algamune is a commercial additive produced from Euglena gracilis, as a source of linear -1,3-glucan. In order to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of this -glucan product, the present study assessed the innate immune parameters of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) exposed to Algamune ex vivo and in vivo. Isolated kidney phagocytes were incubated with graded concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2mgL-1) of dried Euglena gracilis (Algamune) as well as purified Paramylon (linear -1,3 glucan). Increased bactericidal activity against Streptococcus iniae, and production of intracellular O2- anion superoxide were stimulated by both -glucan sources. A reduced activity of extracellular anion superoxide was observed by the phagocytes incubated with Algamune . After corroborating the effectiveness of the glucan source ex vivo, a feeding trial was conducted using red drum juveniles (26.6g initial weight). Fish were fed diets with graded levels of Algamune (0, 100, 200, 400 and 800mgkg-1) twice daily for 21 days. No significant differences were detected regarding production performance parameters. At the end of the feeding trial, blood, intestinal content, and kidney were sampled. Intestinal microbiota from fecal material was analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and found to be similar among all treatments. No significant differences were detected for oxidative radical production from whole blood, and isolated phagocytes, and plasma lysozyme activity. However, the total hemolytic activity of red drum plasma was increased in fish fed 100 and 200mgkg-1 of dietary Algamune when compared to fish fed the basal diet. Based on results from both ex vivo and in vivo trials, -glucan from Algamune was demonstrated to have a moderate immunostimulatory effects on red drum.

published proceedings

  • Fish Shellfish Immunol

altmetric score

  • 5.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Yamamoto, F. Y., Yin, F., Rossi, W., Hume, M., & Gatlin, D. M.

citation count

  • 24

complete list of authors

  • Yamamoto, Fernando Y||Yin, Fei||Rossi, Waldemar||Hume, Michael||Gatlin, Delbert M

publication date

  • June 2018