S100A12 concentrations and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies.
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BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosal S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory biomarkers in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these biomarkers have not been studied in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), even though dogs with CE have increased S100A12 concentrations in feces and serum. This study investigated mucosal S100A12 concentrations and MPO activities in both dogs with CE and healthy Beagles. ELISA (S100A12 concentrations) and spectrophotometric methods (MPO activity) were used. The associations of both biomarkers with canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, clinical outcome, and serum albumin concentrations were also investigated. We studied intestinal mucosal samples originating from different intestinal regions of 40 dogs with CE and 18 healthy Beagle dogs (duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum). RESULTS: Compared with healthy Beagles, mucosal S100A12 concentrations in dogs with CE were significantly higher in the duodenum (p<0.0001) and colon (p=0.0011), but not in the ileum (p=0.2725) and cecum (p=0.2194). Mucosal MPO activity of dogs with CE was significantly higher in the duodenum (p<0.0001), ileum (p=0.0083), colon (p<0.0001), and cecum (p=0.0474). Mucosal S100A12 concentrations in the duodenum were significantly higher if the inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of neutrophils (p=0.0439) or macrophages (p=0.037). Mucosal S100A12 concentrations also showed a significant association with the severity of total histopathological injury and epithelial injury in the colon (p<0.05). Mucosal MPO activity showed a significant association (p<0.05) with the severity of total histopathological injury, epithelial injury, and eosinophil infiltration in the duodenum. There was no significant association of both biomarkers with CIBDAI or clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that both mucosal S100A12 concentrations and MPO activities are significantly increased in the duodenum and colon of dogs with CE; mucosal MPO was also increased in the ileum and cecum. Future research should focus on assessing the clinical utility of S100A12 and MPO as diagnostic markers in dogs with CE.