Ground Beef High in Total Fat and Saturated Fatty Acids Decreases X Receptor Signaling Targets in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Men and Women
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We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period. The 25F and 18F ground-beef increased (p < 0.05) the intake of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, but the 25F ground-beef increased only the intake of oleic acid (p < 0.05). The ground-beefs 18F and 25F increased the plasma concentration of palmitic acid (p < 0.05) and decreased the plasma concentrations of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenic acids (p < 0.05). The interventions of 18F and 25F ground-beef decreased very low-density lipoprotein C concentrations and increased particle diameters and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-I-C and LDL-II-C concentrations (p < 0.05). The ground-beef 25F decreased PBMC mRNA levels for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette A, ATP binding cassette G1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, and LDL receptor (LDLR) (p < 0.05). The ground-beef 18F increased mRNA levels for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (p < 0.05). We conclude that the increased LDL particle size and LDL-I-C and LDL-II-C concentrations following the 25F ground-beef intervention may have been caused by decreased hepatic LDLR gene expression.
author list (cited authors)
Choi, S. H., Gharahmany, G., Walzem, R. L., Meade, T. H., & Smith, S. B.