An Alternate Conceptualization of the Leisure Constraints Measurement Model Formative Structure? Academic Article uri icon


  • In this paper, we question researchers' assumption that the leisure constraints measurement model holds reflective structure and offer an alternative conceptualization consistent with the structure of constraints indicators. We contend that constraints indicators follow a formative structure and that reflective specifications violate the psychometric assumptions underlying the common factors model. After clarifying conceptual distinctions governing formative and reflective measurement, we then offer an empirical example to demonstrate its application and present several guiding criteria for developing and assessing formative indices. By improving our ability to correctly model the constraints measurement model, formative specifications have the potential to resolve a number of confounding measurement issues, advance our understanding of leisure constraint and negotiation processes, and enhance delivery of leisure services.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Kyle, G., & Jun, J.

citation count

  • 15

complete list of authors

  • Kyle, Gerard||Jun, Jinhee

publication date

  • January 2015